|Please provide a short description of the state-of-the-art and/or current trends in the field? How does the result fit into it?|
|Traditionally, the development of biological processes to transform biomass to more versatile energy carriers has been focused on the production of one energy carrier, either hydrogen, methane, ethanol or biodiesel. Despite the obvious advantages of combining the production of different energy carriers, only a few biorefinery concepts have been published,. Common to the presently known concepts is a much better exploitation of the biomass (energy crops, agricultural residues, wastes) by suiting specific microbiological processes to the conversion of different fractions of the substrates to different fuels.|
|What is the problem/need/knowledge gap that the research result is responding to? How was it addressed before?|
|Normally, extraction of oil from oil seeds applies pressing or extraction with hexane. However, this method is resulting in only two fractions namely the oil fraction and the rape flake. A whole rapeseed crop utilisation would however, have advantage of a better fractionation of the rapeseed in order to efficiently utilise products such as proteins, and high value added chemicals. Essential progress can be achieved by use of an enzymatic oil extraction process, comprising grinding of the oil seed, enzymatic solubilization of cell wall material and recovery of the oil by centrifugation. Enzymatic oil extraction and downstream separation process finally resulted in 4 major fractions from rapeseed-oil, protein, sugar syrup and hulls. Others benefits deriving from this process is mainly that: a) the oil has a very high value as a fine edible oil with a very attractive fatty acid profile b) the oil is a very good platform for production of high value esters by enzymatic transesterification c) the soluble (water) phase can easily be separated into a solid protein fraction and a solution enriched of glucosinolates, antioxidants etc. d) The protein fraction with more than 60% protein has a much higher quality than the existing rape seed cake on the market and can be used as protein ingredient in high value compound feed for infant animals and for human consumption, e) Hulls can be used as feedstock for bioethanol or as fibres in food processing industry. The enzymatic oil extraction method seems to be very promising, especially in the light of the fast development of the enzymes sector. The method has however, not fully been investigated and optimised, in respect to enzymes efficiency, and downstream separation. Especially, technology for continuous extraction and separation systems has not yet been developed.|
|What is the potential for further research?|
|In BioREF project it is aimed to develop and improve enzymatic rapeseed oil extraction method with respect to higher production yields and rates. Advanced enzyme based technology developed in BioREF project will be beyond previously known oil extraction techniques. This technology will allow to obtain four different rapeseed derived fractions to be further processed for production of high value added chemicals, edible oil and proteins. Novel enzymatic rapeseed treatment configuration will contribute to production of finest edible oil with high nutrient qualities with respect to fatty acids profile.|
|What is the proposed method of IPR-protection? (patent, license, trademark etc.)|
|The proposed IPR protection method is industrial design from the Greek Patent Office (OVI). An industrial design renders an object attractive or appealing, thus increasing its marketability and adding to its commercial value. The design may be three-dimensional based on the shape or surface of the object, or two-dimensional based on the object’s patterns, lines or colours. Novelty, originality and visual appeal are essential if an industrial design is to be patented|
|What are the steps that need to be taken in order to secure the IPR-protection? What is the cost of IPR-protection?|
|The steps are:
An industrial design application is required to complement the patented ground heating design for green houses. The cost of industrial application IPR to OVI : application cost 500 euro file preparation cost: 1500 euro
|What is you overall assessment of the scientific maturity of the research result?|
|The scientific maturity is explored in the following research methodology:The rapeseed plant will be divided in two streams, namely the seed and the straw part. 1) The seed will be treated by an innovative enzymatic process (hemicellulases) resulting in 4 different fractions (hulls, oil, sugars and proteins). From the oil fraction biodiesel will be produced by a new enzymatic transesterification method and also, high value added chemicals (phospholipids, tocopherols, sterols, dicarboxylic acids, epoxidized oleochemicals) will be derived. Glycerol released in biodiesel production as by product will be also utilized for production of high value added mono- and diglycerides. From the other parts (hulls, syrup and proteins) high value products such as antioxidants, glucosinolates, anticancer pharmaceuticals, and high quality proteins rich in lysine and methionine etc. will be recovered; 2) From the straw, a chain of processes will result in bioethanol (conversion of hexoses), and biohydrogen (conversion of pentoses) production. The effluents from different processes will be treated anaerobically for their stabilisation and methane production. Finally, the treated effluents will be used as biofertilisers.|
KEYWORDS QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT (0-5).
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 Angelidaki I, Kongjan P, Thomsen MH, Thomsen AB (2007) Biorefinery for sustainable biofuel production from energy crops; conversion of lignocellulose to bioethanol, biohydrogen and biomethane. 11th IWA World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion, 23-27 September, Brisbane, Australia, Session PP8A-Bioenergy 2.
 Westermann P, Ahring BK (2005) The biorefinery for production of multiple biofuels. In Lens P, Westermann P, Haberbauer M, Moreno A (eds) Biofuels for fuel cells. IWA. London, p194..
 Jensen SK (1990). Biochemical and Physiological Investigations of the Meal and Syrup Fractions from Aqueous Enzymatic Rapeseed Processing. PhD thesis. The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd