Description

The paper presents a method of study and the steps to obtain virtual bones of human body. For that purpose was used a CAD parametric software which permits to define models with a high level of difficulty. The obtained models attached to other bones will be study using finite elements method and will be prepared for kinematics and dynamic simulation.
The research theme, presented in this paper, it was a part of a large subject of study, which attracts the knowledge from different fields (anatomy, surgical techniques, orthopaedics, mechanics, bio-mechanisms, computer science, technical graphics, computer aided design). The subject of this paper permits the cooperation between many researchers which activate in different fields and which have the capacity to develop informational methods and technologies to solve difficult problems given by the complexity of the scientifically target [2].
The knee joint is an important joint from the human locomotion system and it is composed of bones, ligaments, tendons and cartilages. From such reason, scientifically studies are very difficult to realize because the knee is the most complex joint in the human body, almost they are made in a statically system [3].
To understand the problems, which appear in this joint, it is very important to know the anatomy of the knee and the way in which the components are working together to realize a normal functionality.
The knee has ligaments, tendons, bones, menisci and cartilages as the main components (Figure 1).

SOLUTION

To obtain the bone cross sections was used a PHILIPS AURA CT tomograph installed in the Emergency Hospital from Craiova (Figure 2).
To obtain the tomographical images of the two bone components (tibia and femur) were used two scanning schemes presented in Figure 3. For the ends of the bones the scanning operation was made at the distances of 1 mm and for the medial areas at the distances of 3 mm.
To have the possibility to report the next 3D model to a fixed coordinate system and to respect a correct representation scale, the two bone components were scanned with a plastic bar with known dimensions (Figure 4).

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