Technical feasibility


PARTEA A: Identificarea rezultatului cercetării-deZvoltării (CD)

·         The project team

             Echipa proiectului

Advisor’s Name:Nume: Department for Technologies and MaterialsProject: About the 3D Model of Human Knee Components Using  Tomographical Images
Phone:Telefon:  +40.740.163396
Expecting date of valorization plan submission:Data aşteptată pentru trimiterea planului de valorizare  07.02.2012

·         Identification of R&D activity

Identificarea activităţii de cercetare-dezvoltare (CD)



Author of the R&D result:Autorul rezultatului CD:  Dr. Eng. Gherghina George  
Company or University:Companie sau Universitate:  UNIVERSITY OF  CRAIOVA, ROMANIA   
Phone:Telefon:  +40.745.505251  
Sector:Domeniu:  ENG – Engineering  
Type of the R&D result:Tipul rezultatului CD:   Method of study  


Partea B: Planul de valorizare

SECTION I: Testing

SECŢIUNEA I: Testarea/încercarea



Has the R & D result been tested?A fost testat/încercat rezultatul CD?







The following question is replied according to the reply in question 1

Următoarea întrebare este formulată în legătură cu răspunsul la întrebarea 1


If yes

Dacă răspunsul a fost DA:



In what mode has the result been tested?•           Prototype

•           Pilot Application

•           Alpha/BETA testing

În ce mod a fost testat/încercat rezultatul?

•           Prototip

•           Aplicaţie Pilot

•           Incercare Alpha/BETA

1b. Please describe and discuss the testing resultsVa rugăm să descrieţi rezultatele testate/încercate


If no:

Dacă răspunsul a fost NU:


Describe what type of testing does the R&D result need?Descrieţi ce tip de testare/încercare necesită rezultatul CD?
Detailed commentComentariu detaliat


The overall aim of the research study is to develop study methods and steps to get virtual bones of human body.


For that purpose was used a CAD parametric software which permits to define models with a high level of difficulty. The obtained models attached to other bones will be study using finite elements method and will be prepared for kinematics and dynamic simulation.


To obtain the bone cross sections were used a PHILIPS AURA CT tomograph installed in the Emergency Hospital from Craiova.


To obtain the topographical images of the two bone components (tibia and femur) were used two scanning schemes. For the ends of the bones the scanning operation was made at the distances of 1 mm and for the medial areas at the distances of 3 mm.


To have the possibility to report the next 3D model to a fixed coordinate system and to respect a correct representation scale, the two bone components were scanned with a plastic bar with known dimensions. 16 images folders were obtained and, after a rigorous selection, were used only 6, 3 for each bone component including the upper and lower areas (scanned at 1 mm) and the medial areas (scanned at 3 mm).


1d. What is the time needed for testing?Care este perioada de timp necesară testări?
Time for testing, probing and approval is expected to be within 60 working days.
1e. What is the cost needed for testing?Care este costul necesar pentru testare?
The costs required to make virtual models of the human body bones are estimated at 2000 euros. Costs related to testing, probing and homologation of functional model are estimated to be 1100 Euro.

SECTION 2: Current Stage of Development

SECŢIUNEA 2: Stadiul actual de dezvoltare



To what extent does the development team have technical resources for supporting the production of a new product? (Researchers, human resources, hardware, etc. )În ce măsură dispune echipa de resursele necesare pentru a asigura fabricarea noului produs? (Cercetători, resurse umane, hardware, etc.)
The research team includes experts recognized nationally and internationally, with significant results in biomechanical modeling of the human body. Personal contributions refer to physical and mathematical modeling of human knee biomechanics, to verification and validation of models.
Within the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, there is equipment and specialized software to analyze structure and behavior of models used to emphasize capacity and way of improving their performance, and functional validation of models.


What are the technical issues that need to be tackled for full deployment, if needed?Care sunt aspectele tehnice ce trebuie abordate pentru lansarea în fabricaţie, dacă sunt necesare?
For practical application of research results the next steps are required:
- Obtaining tomography images of the bone components (tibia, femur);
- Working out the images obtained in AutoCAD;
- Import drawings into SolidWorks;
- Getting the unified solid;
- Making of virtual models of the knee joint.
- Development of design concept and requirements; 


What additional technical resources are needed for the production of this new product?Ce resurse tehnice suplimentare sunt necesare pentru fabricarea acestui nou produs?
For the application of virtual models in human knee joints there are required experimental tests carried out and developed in the virtual environment – on virtual prototypes through integrated assessment by virtual instrumentation done by specialized companies.




Overall assessment of the current stage of technical development.Evaluarea generală a stadiului actual de dezvoltare tehnică
Detailed commentComentariu detaliat


The knee is the most complex joint from the human body, but this paper proves the mechanical studies can be made starting from anatomical knowledges. The behaviour of the virtual knee can give the important informations which can be used in the fields of robotics, medicine sciences and medical robotics. Also, on the virtual knee joint can be attached virtual prosthetic elements for virtual post-surgery simulations.


The obtained models were completed with the mass properties and the virtual bones had in that moment the same inertial characteristics as the real bones. So, using the command Tools/Mass Properties was obtained a average density of the 0.00056 grams/mm3.


Companies must adapt more effectively to market segments that are becoming more demanding and more diverse.
Day is not far when the customer comes in contact with the virtual prototype of the product, enabling him a direct feedback by the project team.

The central core that coordinates the entire activity is advanced and specialized software that is  installed on state-of-the art computers.



SECTION 3: Deployment

SECŢIUNEA 3: Lansarea în fabricaţie


Define the demands for large scale production in terms ofDefiniţi cererea pentru producţia de masă în funcţie de:
  • Materials
  • Materiale
After creating and validating virtual model, setting of all suppliers of materials, off they go to product realization through rapid prototyping (3D printing out).
  • technologies, tools, machineries
  • Tehnologii, utilaje, maşini
Required technologies:
- Scanning technology
- Rapid Prototyping

- PC;
- CT scanner;
- 3D printer.

  • Staff effort
  • Resurse umane
Estimated human resource requirements:
- Staff to survey the market,
- Staff for investment and operator’s  training
- Staff for commercial activities, advertising and expertise. 



SECTION 4: Overall Assessment

SECŢIUNEA 4: Evaluare generală



What is you overall assessment of the technical feasibility of the research result?Care este evaluarea generală a fezabilităţii tehnice pentru rezultatul CD?
Biologically the knee has ligaments, tendons, bones, cartilage and menisci as main components.
To obtain bone cross sections it was used a PHILIPS AURA CT tomograph.


The obtained models attached to other bones will be study using finite elements method and will be prepared for kinematics and dynamic simulation.


The research theme, it was a part of a large subject of study, which attracts the knowledge from different fields (anatomy, surgical techniques, orthopaedics, mechanics, bio-mechanisms, computer science, technical graphics, computer aided design). The subject of this paper permits the cooperation between many researchers which activate in different fields and which have the capacity to develop informational methods and technologies to solve difficult problems given by the complexity of the scientifically target.


The models presented are based on mechanical elements of elastic type, with values of specific parameters ​​taken from the biological features.

Assumed risks (technical, financial) related to design of virtual models of the knee bones specifically refers to the following types:
- Risks that may arise during design stage;
- Risks that may occur during the execution of the product (technological risk, cost overrun risk, the risk of sub-contractors);
- Risks that may occur during operation of the product (the possibility of changing the value of Euro currency, changing economic circumstances of the area, major legislative changes).

In conclusion, the project can be considered to have low risk in technical terms.



Evaluare cantitativă (0-5)


Please put X as appropriate.

Vă rugăm să marcaţi cu X  punctajul considerat corespunzător


1 2 3 4 5
Adequacy of testing activity undertaken so farGradul de adecvare al activităţii de testare desfăşurate pănă în prezent X
Adequacy and availability of technical resources of the development teamGradul de adecvare şi disponibilitatea resurselor tehnice ale echipei X
Current development stageStadiul actual de dezvoltare X
Overall technical feasibilityFezabilitatea tehnică generală X



We agree that all informations contained in this form to be made public in the project „Inter-regional cooperation for valorization of research results – INTERVALUE”, by publication on the project website:

Suntem de acord ca informaţiile cuprinse în acest formular să fie făcute publice în cadrul proiectului „Inter-regional cooperation for valorization of research results – INTERVALUE”, prin publicarea lor pe site-ul proiectului, la adresa:

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