Technical feasibility

SECTION I: Testing

 

1 Has the R & D result been tested?
YES X
NO

 

1a In what mode has the result been tested? 

•              Prototype

•              Pilot Application

•              Alpha/BETA testing

 

Individual modules of the model have been validated against analytical solutions. OFIS has also been tested through its application in a number of case studies and model intercomparison activities. Some characteristic applications of the model OFIS are the following: 

  1. Technical Expertise in the Context of the Commissions Communication on an Ozone Strategy: This urban scale photochemical ozone study was conducted for the European Commission (DGXI) in the context of the Commissions Communication on an ozone strategy. The EMEP and OFIS ozone models were used to estimate the effect of emission changes on future ozone concentrations in Europe, at both the regional and the urban scale.
    The modelling work at the regional scale was conducted with the EMEP MSC-W ozone model, applied over a 6-month period using meteorology from 1990. Model calculations were performed for the 1990 situation, the year 2010 base-case (REF) and two scenarios proposed by IIASA (MFR, D7). Urban scale modelling was carried out using the OFIS model for Stuttgart and Athens the aim being to calculate the local scale ozone levels in both urban areas during a typical summer period.
    In addition to simply employing the regional scenarios on the local scale, OFIS was applied for the case of applying additional emission reductions on top of the regionally assumed scenarios. The emission reductions impact on ozone was analysed in terms of AOT60, maximum daily 8h ozone values, the maximum daily 1h value, grid hours > 120 µg/m3 (8h), grid hours > 180 µg/m3 (1h), grid hours > 240 µg/m3(1h).
  2. CITY-DELTA European Modelling Exercise – An inter-comparison of long-term model responses to urban-scale emission-reduction scenarios: Comparisons are conducted for a number of European cities with distinct differences in climatic conditions (e.g., Northern and Southern Europe), the vicinity of the sea, differences in meteorological situations, and emission densities. Practical considerations included the availability of suitable models, of emission inventories for gaseous and particulate pollutants, of sufficient meteorological information, and monitoring data. Eight cities have been selected: Berlin, Copenhagen, Katowice, London, Marseille, Milan, Paris and Prague.
    The main objectives of the CITY-DELTA exercise are:
    - Model inter-comparisons in order to assess the performance of available models and compare them against available observational data
    - To assist air-quality managers in quantifying the contribution of regional versus local sources and in identifying and assessing the most effective emission controls.
    - To provide quantitative information in relation to legal obligations, e.g. whether a certain trend in emissions will achieve air quality limit values.
    OFIS was one of the models which were used in this inter-comparison exercise. The CITY-DELTA conclusions provide guidance on how urban air-quality could be included in a Europe-wide evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of emission control strategies.
  3. Air quality status in Greater Thessaloniki Area and emission reductions needed for attaining the EU air quality legislation: The objective of this study was to imprint the urban air quality status and to assess the impact of various emission reduction scenarios on the photochemical and particulate matter air pollution levels in the Greater Thessaloniki Area. In particular, it was investigated under which conditions compliance with the EU air quality legislation could be achieved. For this purpose, the OFIS model was applied for a full calendar reference year period (2002) as well as for specific scenarios, corresponding to predefined emission reductions in 2010.
1b. Please describe and discuss the testing results
Through multiple applications, such as the ones described in section 1a, OFIS has been found capable of successfully reproducing mesoscale wind flow features like the sea breeze circulation, mountain and valley wind systems as well as the heat island phenomenon. A summary of the results of OFIS simulations performed in the framework of different applications is given below: 

  1. CITY-DELTA European Modelling Exercise – An inter-comparison of long-term model responses to urban-scale emission-reduction scenarios: Comparisons are conducted for a number of European cities with distinct differences in climatic conditions, the vicinity of the sea, differences in meteorological situations, and emission densities. Practical considerations included the availability of suitable models, of emission inventories for gaseous and particulate pollutants, of sufficient meteorological information, and monitoring data. Eight cities were selected. OFIS was one of the models which were used in this inter-comparison exercise. From the results, OFIS clearly achieves its goal, i.e., it succeeds in refining regional scale model results, while its effectiveness is highest near the city and diminishes with distance. The performance of OFIS is comparable to that of complex 3D model MUSE. However, it is by more than 1 order of magnitude faster. The combination of a regional scale model and OFIS is an adequate tool for satisfying the needs of the EU Air Quality Framework Directive.
  2. Air quality status in Greater Thessaloniki Area and emission reductions needed for attaining the EU air quality legislation: The aim of this study was to imprint the urban air quality status and to assess the impact of various emission reduction scenarios on the photochemical and particulate matter air pollution levels in the Greater Thessaloniki Area (GTA). In this direction, OFIS was applied to predict the spatial pattern of the average concentrations and exceedances of the air pollutants under consideration for the reference year 2002 as well as the impact of the predefined emission reduction scenarios to the long-term air pollution levels.  As in previous studies, the OFIS model was found capable of describing satisfactorily the observed photochemical air pollution levels. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that OFIS is an efficient tool for investigating the general trends of concentrations for various emissions reduction scenarios and thus for checking the compliance with the given EU air quality legislation.

SECTION 2: Current Stage of Development

2a To what extent does the development team have technical resources for supporting the production of a new product? (Researchers, human resources, hardware, etc. )
The model has been developed by the Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering (LHTEE) of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Further research for the improvement of the model’s performance, including necessary modifications on its structure and enhancements in the main computational procedures, can be fully supported by the LHTEE research personnel and the existing infrastructure. 

LHTEE is recognised as one of the leading research institutions at both national and European level in the field of air pollutant transport and transformation modelling. Most of the Laboratory’s research funds originate from competitive programmes of the European Commission. Several Laboratory activities aim at supporting national and international institutions in charge of formulating new or updating existing air quality legislation and providing consulting services relevant to Environmental Integrated Assessment studies and related EU projects. The Laboratory has a long record of participations at EU funded projects related to air pollution control and has been providing services to the European Environment Agency (EEA) for more than one decade. Research in the field of air pollution in LHTEE mainly refers to the formulation of systems for integrated air quality analyses in urban and industrial areas, both for retrospective studies and for environmental planning purposes. The Laboratory is also involved in the development of environmental management tools, as well as integrated decision support systems for the compilation of a complete and accurate picture of the state of the environment or changes to it. Therefore, LHTEE research personnel can fully support any requirements regarding MEMO adjustments.

Prof. Nicolas Moussiopoulos, the head of LHTEE, is the main Scientific Responsible for the OFIS model.

2b What are the technical issues that need to be tackled for full deployment, if needed?
The latest version of OFIS does not include a Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) module. OFIS advances will include the incorporation of an advanced computational procedure, which could support the use of more vertical layers in the model’s calculations.
2c What additional technical resources are needed for the production of this new product?
The production of this new product requires some investment in computer hardware (e.g. advanced computer systems, increased storage and CPU speed).

 

2d Overall assessment of the current stage of technical development.
The extended validation of OFIS for applications in different areas has shown a reliable model performance for simulating air pollutant transport and transformation in an urban plume. Statistical tests have demonstrated a good agreement between model results and observations. As a result, OFIS is a complete and working product which is ready for use.

SECTION 3: Deployment

3a Define the demands for large scale production in terms of
  • Materials
No materials are needed.
  • technologies, tools, machineries
Computing hardware for the application of the model will be required, as well as the software programmes necessary for post processing and visualisation of model results.
  • Staff effort
The application of the model requires a modelling team consisting of experts, such as mechanical engineers, physicists and computer programmers. The modelling team will undertake the collection of all the needed input data and their modification into a format compatible with the model requirements, the initial configuration and application of the model and the visualisation of model results.

SECTION 4: Overall Assessment

1 What is you overall assessment of the technical feasibility of the research result?
The extended validation of OFIS for applications in different areas has shown a reliable model performance for assessing urban air quality. Statistical tests have demonstrated a good agreement between model results and observations. 

In this point, it is essential to clarify that the model’s aim is not to precisely reproduce the concentration values for each pollutant species at every timestep and each cell of the domain, but merely to describe consistently the statistics of air pollution levels, emphasising on estimates for the exceedance of each species’ threshold values based on meteorological data, regional background concentrations and the emission patterns of the area under investigation.

Therefore, OFIS can be recommended as a useful tool for air pollution assessment and management.

 

KEYWORDS QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT (0-5).

Please put X as appropriate. 1 2 3 4 5
Adequacy of testing activity undertaken so far +
Adequacy and availability of technical resources of the development team +
Current development stage +
Overall technical feasibility +

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