Description

Semantics is the study of meaning. It focuses on the relation between words and phrases and due to the relationship what they mean in context. The idea of semantics is expressed in many forms that include the semantics of programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics. Additionally, the term semantics is used to refer to different types of data structures that have been specifically designed and used for representing information. Activities such as Web Services and the Semantic Web are working to create a distributed web of machine understandable data. We address three important problems that need to be solved to realize this vision. A semantic platform is a software infrastructure that is able to pull in undefined data and push out defined data with the proper meaning attached in the form of new semantically relevant metadata describing the unstructured content. This in turn creates new insight and knowledge for people to access at the right time in a usable presentation. W3C has published a new edition of Standards for Web Applications on Mobile, an overview of the various technologies developed in W3C that increase the power of Web applications, particularly in the mobile context. W3C standards define an Open Web Platform for application development that has the unprecedented potential to enable developers to build rich interactive experiences, powered by vast data stores, that are available on any device. The full strength of the platform relies on many more technologies that W3C including CSS, SVG, WOFF, the Semantic Web stack, XML, and a variety of APIs. In addition to the classic “Web of documents” W3C is helping to build a technology stack to support a “Web of data,” the sort of data you find in databases. The ultimate goal of the Web of data is to enable computers to do more useful work and to develop systems that can support trusted interactions over the network. The term “Semantic Web” refers to W3C’s vision of the Web of linked data. Semantic Web technologies enable people to create data stores on the Web, build vocabularies, and write rules for handling data. Linked data are empowered by technologies such as RDF, SPARQL, OWL, and SKOS. Representation standards such as RDF/XML offer an elegant graph-based model for representing information about entities in the Web. They however lack essential semantic capabilities that determine for instance whether or not dissimilar terms can coexist under the same concept. The catalyst to overcome this issue and to ensure greater semantic expressiveness comes with the adoption of common, standard vocabularies also known as ontologies. Semantic Web Services technologies enable the automatic discovery, selection and composition of distributed services for a specific user request. The term “service” refers to software functionalities which are exposed to and accessible through the Web (i.e. based on HTTP). In that, a Web service might utilise standard Web service technology such as SOAP and WSDL but also more light-weight approaches such as REST or XML-RPC. Semantic Web Services are being deployed to facilitate interoperability and to increase the degree of automation in a wide range of applications from different domains. Within this component more adequate mechanisms for creating, publishing and discovering services must be generated. In particular, service publication must: •be able to deal with service heterogeneity (e.g., WSDL services and Web APIs) •be based on the use of light-weight semantics able to support relatively advanced yet efficient discovery, and •be combined with an appropriate set of tools able to support users in the annotation and publication of services.

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